This was the first regiment organized under the act of the State legislature authorizing the enlistment of troops for twelve months. The companies rendezvoused at Pensacola in February and March 1861, and about the 1st of April organized by the election of regimental officers. Transferred to the army of the Confederate States soon after, it remained on duty at Pensacola for a year. It was chiefly occupied in manning the batteries and took part in the bombardments of November 23, and January 1, 1862. A detachment was in the night fight on Santa Rosa Island. Being the oldest regiment in the Confederate service, it was first called on to re-enlist for the war, at the end of the first year, and seven of the companies did so. Ordered to Tennessee, the regiment, 1000 strong, reached Island Ten March 12, 1862. In the severe conflict there, all but a remnant of the regiment were captured. Those who escaped were organized into a battalion, which was part of the garrision at Fort Pillow, and afterwards fought at Corinth. Those captured were exchanged in September, and the regiment rendezvoused at Jackson, Miss., having lost 150 by death in prison, 150 by casualties since and during the siege of Island Ten. At once ordered to Port Hudson, they participated in the privations of that siege. They were captured, after losing 150 killed and wounded. The privates were paroled and the officers kept in prison till the peace. The men were exchanged in the fall, and joined Gen. Johnston in Mississippi, 610 strong. The regiment was then at Mobile and Pollard, and joined Gen. Johnston at Alatoona. In Cantey's brigade, it fought at New Hope, and was afterwards transferred to the brigade of Gen. Quarles, in which it served till the end. It participated at Kennesa, and lost considerably at Peach Tree Creek. In the terrible assault on the enemy's lines at Atlanta, July 28, the regiment won fresh renown, but lost half of its force in killed and wounded. Moving with Hood into Tennessee, it again lost very heavily at Franklin and Nashville. Transferred to North Carolina, it took part at Averysboro and Bentonville, and about 100 men surrendered at Goldsboro. Upwards of 3000 names were on its rolls at different times during the war, including the companies that did not re-enlist.
Colonels - Henry D. Clayton of Barbour; till re-organized. Isaiah G.W. Steedman of Wilcox; captured at Island Ten and Port Hudson.
Lieutenant Colonels - I.G.W. Steedman; promoted. M.B. Locke of Pike; wounded and captured at Port Hudson.
Majors - Jere N. Williams of Barbour; till re-organized. Samual L. Knox of Talladega; captured at Island Ten; captured at Port Hudson, but escaped; wounded at Atlanta; killed in command of the regiment of Franklin.
Adjutants - S.H. Dent of Barbour; resigned. Samuel D. Steedman of Wilcox; captured at Island Ten and Port Hudson.
Tallapoosa - James D. Meadows; captured at Island Ten and Port Hudson; murdered by the guard at Johnson's Island.
Pike - Augustus H. Owen; resigned. J.H. Wood.
Lowndes - Y.D. Conyers; resigned. John T. Stubbs; captured at Island Ten and Port Hudson.
Wilcox - D. Wardlaw of Ramsay; captured at Island Ten and Port Hudson.
Talladega - Joseph H. Johnson; resigned. R.H. Isbell; captured at Port Hudson.
Pike - George W. Dawson; till re-organized. M.B. Locke; captured at Island Ten; elected lieutenant colonel. R.H. Riley; captured at Port Hudson.
Barbour - Alpheus Baker; resigned. (Company disbanded at the end of the first year.)
Barbour - John W. Clarke. (Company disbanded at the end of the first year.)
Mobile - Ben Lane Posey. (Company disbanded at the end of the first year.)
Barbour - J.W. Mabry; not re-elected. Richard Williams; captured at Island Ten; wounded and captured at Port Hudson.
Barbour (1862) - Wm. H. Pruitt; captured at Port Hudson.
Montgomery and Autauga (1862) - J.F. Whitfield; captured at Island Ten and Port Hudson.
Macon (1862) - C.A. Stanton; captured at Island Ten; resigned. C.C. Knowles; captured at Port Hudson.